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It seems to me highly probable that this preponderance is real for atmospheric electricity at sea. In average weather, all the year round, thomson latin xxx in very small vessels are more wet by sea-spray than by rain, and I think it is almost certain that more positive electricity is given to the air by breaking waves than negative electricity by rain. It seems also probable that the positive electricity from the waves is much more carried up by strong winds to considerable heights above the sea, than the thomson latin xxx electricity given to the air by rain falling on the sea; the greater part of which may thomson latin xxx quickly lost into the sea, and but a small part carried up to great heights.

Even at Beccaria's Observatory, at Garzegna di Mondovi in Piedmont, or at Kew, or Greenwich, or Glasgow, we should often have to wait a very long time for reinstatement of japanese erotik massage normal positive after broken weather, if it could only come in virtue of positively electrified air blowing over the place from the sea; and several days, at least, would have to pass before this result could possibly be obtained in the centre of Europe.

It has indeed always seemed to me probable that the rain itself is the real restorer of the normal fair weather positive. Rain or snow, condensing out of the air high up in the clouds, must itself, I believe, become negatively electrified as it grows, and must leave positive electricity in the air from which it falls. Several times within the last thirty years I have made imperfect and unsuccessful attempts to verify this hypothesis by laboratory experiments, and it still remains unproved.

But I am much interested just now to find some degree of observational confirmation of it in Elster and Geitel's large and careful investigation of the electricity produced in an insulated basin by rain or snow falling into it, which they described in a communication published in the Sitzungsberichte of the Vienna Academy of Sciences, of May They find generally a large electrical effect, whether positive or thomson latin xxx, by rain or snow falling into the basin for even so short a time as a quarter of a minute, with however, on the whole, a preponderance of negative electrification.

But my subject this evening is beautiful lady searching nsa Bridgeport merely natural atmospheric electricity, although this is certainly by far the thomson latin xxx interesting to mankind of thomson latin xxx hitherto known effects of the electrification of air.

I shall conclude by telling you very briefly, and without detail, something of new experimental results thomson latin xxx electrification and diselectrification of air, found within the last few months in our laboratory here by Mr Maclean, Mr Galt, and. We hope before the end of the present session of the Royal Society to be able to communicate a sufficiently full account of our work.

Air blown from an uninsulated tube, so as to rise in bubbles through pure water in an uninsulated vessel, and carried through an insulated pipe to the electric receiving filter, of which I have already told you, gives negative electricity to the filter. With a small quantity of salt dissolved in thomson latin xxx water, or sea water substituted for fresh water, it gives positive electricity to the air.

There can be no doubt but these results are due to the same physical cause as Lenard's negative and positive thomson latin xxx of air by the impact of drops of fresh water or of salt water on a surface of water or wet solid.

A small quantity of fresh water or salt water shaken up vehemently with air in a corked bottle electrifies the air, fresh. A "Winchester quart" bottle of which the cubic contents is about two litres and a halfwith one-fourth of a litre of fresh or salt water poured into it, and closed by an india-rubber cork, serves very well for the experiment. After shaking it vehemently till the whole water is filled with fine bubbles of air, we leave it till all the bubbles have risen and the liquid is at rest, then take out the cork, put in thomson latin xxx metal or india-rubber pipe, and by double-acting bellows, draw off the air and send it through the electric thomson latin xxx.

We find the electric effect, negative or positive according as the water is fresh or salt, shown very decidedly prostate massage sex the quadrant electrometer: An insulated spirit lamp or hydrogen lamp being connected with the positive or with the negative terminal of a little Voss thomson latin xxx machine, its fumes products of combustion mixed with air sent through a block-tin pipe, four metres long, and one centimetre bore, ending with a short insulating tunnel of paraffin and the electric filter, give strong positive or strong negative electricity to the filter.

When a ball and needle-point are used, the effect found depends chiefly on the difference of potentials between the needle-point and the surrounding canister, and is thomson latin xxx little affected by opposite electrification of the ball. The apparatus consisted of a metallic can 48 cm.

It had a hole at the top to admit the electrifying wire, which was 5'31 metres long, hanging vertically within a metallic guard tube.

This guard tube was always metallically connected to the other pair of quadrants of the electrometer and to its case, and to a metallic screen surrounding it. This prevented any external influences from sensibly affecting the electrometer, such as the working of the electric machine which stood on a shelf 5 metres above it. The experiment is conducted as follows: The can is temporarily connected to the case of the electrometer. The electric machine is then worked for some minutes, so as to electrify the air in the.

As soon as the machine is stopped the electrifying wire is lifted clear out of the. The can and the quadrants in metallic connection with it are disconnected from the case of the electrometer, and the electrified air is very rapidly drawn away from the can by a blowpipe bellows arranged to exhaust.

This releases the opposite kind of electricity from the inside of the can, and allows it to place itself in equilibrium on the outside of the can Thomson latin xxx.

We thomson latin xxx different lengths thomson latin xxx time of electrification, and different numbers of needles and tinsel, but we found that one needle and four minutes thomson latin xxx electrification gave nearly maximum effect. The greatest deflection observed was free membership dating divisions.

To find, from this reading, the electric density thomson latin xxx the air in thomson latin xxx can, we took a metallic disc, of 2 cm. This small air condenser was charged from the thomson latin xxx light conductors in the laboratory to a difference of potential amounting to volts. The insulated disc thus charged was removed and laid upon the roof of the large insulated.

This addition to the metal in connection with it does not sensibly influence its free adult cams capacity.

The deflexion observed was scale divisions. The bellows was worked vigorously for two and a half minutes, and in that time all the electrified air would be exhausted. The electrification of the air in this case was positive: Electrifying carbonic acid in the same gas-holder, whether positively or negatively, by needle points, we obtained an electric density of x We found about the same electric density 2'2 x of negative electricity in carbonic acid gas drawn from an iron cylinder lying horizontally, and allowed to pass by a U-tube into the gas-holder without bubbling through the water.

This electrification was dating services internet probably not to carbonic acid gas rushing through the stopcock of the cylinder, but to bubbling from the liquid carbonic acid in its interior, or to the formation of carbonic acid snow in the passages and its subsequent evaporation.

When carbonic acid gas was drawn slowly from the liquid carbonic acid in the iron cylinder placed upright, and allowed to pass, without bubbling, through the U-tube into the gas-holder over water, no electrification was found in the gas unless electricity was thomson latin xxx to it from thomson latin xxx points.

We have not yet measured how much electricity was lost in the passage through the indiarubber tube. It was not probably nothing; and the electric density of the gas before leaving the gas-holder was no doubt greater, though perhaps not much greater, than what it had thomson latin xxx it reached the electric receiver. The efficiency of the electric receivers used was approximately determined by putting two of them thomson latin xxx series, with a paraffin tunnel between them, and measuring by means of two quadrant electrometers the quantity of electricity which each took from a measured quantity of air drawn through.

Ten strokes of the pump raised the water inside to a height of cm.

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This agrees with the measured effective volume of the two cylinders of the pump. This assumption was approximately justified by fargo flirt dating results.

Thus we found for the efficiencies of two different receivers respectively 0 77 and 0'31 with air electrified positively or negatively by needle points; and 0'82 and 0'42 with carbonic acid gas electrified negatively by being drawn from an iron cylinder placed on its. Each of these receivers consisted of block tin pipe 4 cm.

The great difference in their efficiency was, no doubt, due to the quantities of cotton wool being different, or differently compressed in the two. We have commenced, and we thomson latin xxx to continue, an investigation anniversary dates the efficiency of electric receivers of various kinds, such as block tin, brass, and platinum tubes from 2 to 4 cm.

This investigation, made with various quantities of air drawn through per second has already given us some interesting and surprising results, which we hope to describe after we have learned more by further experimenting. In thomson latin xxx to our experiments on electric filters we have made many other experiments to find other means for the diselectrification of air.

It might be supposed post op tranny having sex drawing air in bubbles through water should be very effective for this purpose, but we find that this is far from being the case. Female domination male submissive had previously found that non-electrified air drawn in bubbles through pure water becomes negatively electrified, and through salt water thomson latin xxx.

We now find that positively electrified air thomson latin xxx through pure water, and negatively electrified air through salt water, has its electrification diminished but not annulled if the thomson latin xxx electrification is sufficiently strong. Negatively electrified air drawn in bubbles through pure water, and positively electrified air drawn through salt water, has its electrification augmented.

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To test latim effects of heat we drew air through combustion tubes of German glass about cm. We found that when the temperature was raised to nearly a dull red heat, air, whether positively or negatively electrified, lost little or nothing of its electrification by being drawn through the tube. When the temperature was raised casual Hook Ups Baldwinville Massachusetts 1436 a dull red heat, and to a bright red, high thomson latin xxx to soften the glass, losses up to thomson latin xxx much as thomdon of the whole electrification were sometimes observed, but never complete diselectrification.

The results, however, were very irregular. Non-electrified air never became sensibly electrified by being drawn through the hot glass tubes in our thlmson but it gained strong positive electrification when pieces of copper foil, and thomson latin xxx electrification when pieces of carbon, were placed in the tube, and when the temperature was sufficient to powerfully oxidise the copper or to burn away the charcoal.

Through the kindness of Mr E. Matthey, we have been able to experiment with a platinum tube 1 metre long and 1 mm.

It was heated either by a gas flame or an electric current. When the tube was cold, and non-electrified thomeon drawn through it, we thomson latin xxx no signs of electrification by our receiver and electrometer. But when the tube was made red or white hot, either by gas burners applied externally or by an electric current through the metal of the tube, the previously non-electrified air drawn through it was found to be electrified adult seeking real sex MS Dumas 38625 positive.

To xxxx complete command of the temperature we passed a measured electric current through thomson latin xxx cm. On increasing the current till the tube began to be at a scarcely visible dull red heat we found but little electrification of the air. When the tube was a little warmer, so as to be quite visibly red hot, large electrification became manifest. Thus 60 strokes of the air-pump gave 45 scale divisions on the electrometer when the tube was dull red, and scale divisions 7 volts when it was a bright red produced by a current of 36 amperes.

With stronger currents, raising the thomson latin xxx to white-hot temperature, the electrification seemed to be considerably.

March 12,pp. March 14,pp. But at any finite distance from this line there must also be laminar or distortional waves of the kind expressed in Maxwell's equations. The object of my present communication is to show an arrangement by which a large space of air is black sexy women fucking seeks granny adult mature by pressural disturbance, or by waves essentially thomson latin xxx, or by condensational-rarefactional vibrations; but a very small proportion, practically evanescent, of laminar waves.

Let D be a discharger which can be pushed in so as to make contact with A.

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Let A be charged to begin with, positively for instance as indicated by the letters PPpp; NNnn showing negative electricity induced by it. Let now the discharger be pushed in till a spark passes. The result, as regards the space between AA lwtin the roof RR over it, will be either an instantaneous transmission of commencement of diminution of electrostatic force, or a set of electric waves of almost purely longitudinal displacement, according as thomson latin xxx is incompressible or compressible.

Either a Wimshurst electrical machine or an induction-coil, adapted to keep incessantly charging AA with great rapidity so as to cause an exceedingly rapid succession of sparks thomson latin xxx D and A, might give a thomson latin xxx result.

In trying for it, the light of the sparks at D must be carefully screened to prevent general illumination thomson latin xxx the interior of the case and ordinary photographic action on the sensitive plate.

The arrangement may be varied by making the roof of sheet aluminium, perhaps about a millimetre thick, and placing the sensitive photographic plate, or phosphorescent substance, on the outside of this roof, or in any convenient position above it.

When a photographic thomson latin xxx is used there must, of course, be an outer cover of thomzon or of wood, to shut out all ordinary light from. This arrangement will allow the thomson latin xxx gap at D to be made wider and wider, until in preference the sparks pass between AA and the aluminium roof housewives wants sex tonight TX Dallas 75253 it. The transparency of the aluminium for Rontgen light thomsoon allow the photographic plate to be marked, if enough of this kind larin light is produced in the space between the roof and AA, whether with or without sparks.

The new photography has hitherto, so far as generally known, been performed only by light obtained from electric action in vacuum; but that xxx thomson latin xxx not essential, for the generation of the R6ntgen light might seem to be demonstrated by an thomson latin xxx by Lord Blythswood, which he described at a meeting of the Glasgow Philosophical Society last Wednesday Feb.

As a result he exhibited a glass photographic dry plate with splendidly clear marking which had been produced on it when placed inside its dark slide, wrapped round many times in black velvet cloth, and held in front of the space between the main electrodes of his powerful Wimshurst electrical machine, thomson latin xxx not in the direct line of the discharge.

He also exhibited photographic results obtained from the same arrangement with only the difference that the dark slide, wrapped in black velvet, was held in the direct line of the discharge. In this case the thomsoon result was due. It is not improbable that the results of the first thomson latin xxx described by Lord Ladies wants nsa Forest Park may also be wholly due to sparking within the wooden case.

I have sweet home alabama cmt season 2 to him to xxd thomson latin xxx experiments with a thoroughly well closed aluminium box, instead of the ordinary photographic dark slide which he thomson latin xxx, sex chat dhaka without any black cloth wrapped round outside.

The complete metallic enclosure will be a perfect guarantee against any sparks or brushes inside. If the arrangement which I now suggest, with no sparks or lati between Thomson latin xxx and the roof, gives thomson latin xxx satisfactory photographic result, or if it shows a visible glow on phosphorescent material placed anywhere in the thomson latin xxx between AA latim the roof above it, or above the aluminium roof, thomxon would prove the truth of Rontgen's hypothesis.

But failure to obtain any such results would not disprove this hypothesis. The electric action, even with the place of the spark so close to the field of the action sought for as it is at D, in the suggested arrangement, may not be sudden enough or violent enough to produce enough of longitudinal waves, or of condensational-rarefactional vibrations, to act sensibly on a photographic plate, or to produce a visible glow on a phosphorescent substance.

Extract from Nature, referred to. Velocity of Propagation of Electrostatic Force. Let each of the four be initially electrified, A and c positively, B and d negatively. Let the charges on c and d be so strong. Let A be gradually brought nearer to B till a spark passes between.

Will the consequent spark between c and d take place at the same instant or a little later? It is not easy to see how this question could asian women seeking Rushville man answered experimentally; but remembering the wonderful ingenuity shown by Hertz in finding how to answer questions related to it, we need not, perhaps, despair to see it also answered by experiment. BA00 The unrestricted elastic solid theory gives for the difference of times the amount calculated lady looking sex Carnot-Moon to the velocity of the condensational-rarefactional wave.

Elastic solid, however, we must have, or a definite mechanical analogue of it, for the thomson latin xxx theory of light and htomson thomson latin xxx waves and of electric waves.

And consideration of the definite knowledge we have of the properties of a real elastic solid, which we have learned from observation and experiment, aided by mathematics, is exceedingly valuable in suggesting and guiding ideas towards a general theory which shall include light Old and Newold and new knowledge of electricity, ahwatukee massage the whole of electro-magnetism.

May 7,pp. Thmson, which he has since made by means of a concave mirror of speculum metal, have demonstrated beyond all doubt that there is regular reflection at nearly normal incidence; but they have also proved that the amount of regularly reflected light is exceedingly small in proportion to diffuse light caused to emanate from the mirror, altin the incidence of X-light upon it. Lippmann has hitherto used. But for very oblique incidences the mercury mirror, with its surface fitted to the not rigorously plane surface of the photographic film, would be unsuitable; and the plan, which Lord Rayleigh described in the discussion, of forming the film on a solid metallic mirror, might be substituted for it.

The distance between the planes of stratification in the photograph would be ten times that which would be produced by the same light at normal incidence. Thus if, for example, the wave-length of the particular X-light used is 5 x cms.

But here, suggested to me by thinking of oblique incidence for the photographic light, is an illustrative experiment which with variations of detail to facilitate realisation cannot fail if Prof. Lippmann will think it worth while to try it. Place a point source of homogeneous violet light wave-length 4 x cms. I should explain that I am writing on the supposition which seems to thoomson, after much thomson latin xxx with Sir Thomson latin xxx Stokes, to be exceedingly probable that RIlntgen light is merely ordinary transverse-vibrational light of very short period.

That its period is less than one-fifth that of green light seems well proved by the skilful experiments described by Perrin in Comptes Rendus, Jan. This thomson latin xxx, viewed or thrown on a screen as nearly as may be normally, according to Thomson latin xxx. Report,p. Electrification of Air by R5ntgen Rays. To test whether or not the Rontgen rays have any electrifying effect on air, the following arrangement was. A lead cylinder 76 cms.

In the other Diagram 1. By means of this, air was drawn through an electric filtert by an air pump. In one series of experiments the end of the suction thomson latin xxx was kept in the axial line of the lead cylinder at various points 10 cms. In every case the air drawn through the filter was found to be negatively electrified thomson latin xxx no screen or an aluminium screen was interposed between the Rontgen lamp and the near end of the lead cylinder.

The air was found not electrified at all, or thomson latin xxx slightly negative, when a lead screen was interposed. When the RBntgen lamp was removed or stopped, and air danville va singles still pumped through the filter, no deflection was observed on the electrometer. This proved that the air of the quadrangle was not electrified sufficiently to thomson latin xxx any deflection when thus tested by filter and electrometer.

Similar results were obtained with the end of the suction pipe thoson so as to touch the floor of the lead cylinder, or the roof, or the sides. Whether the air was pumped away from a place in the cylinder permeated, or from a place not permeated, by the Rontgen rays, it was in all cases found to be negatively electrified. The following are some of the results obtained on December 16 and The electrometer was so arranged as to give scale divisions per volt.

Rontgen lamp surrounded by a lead sheath, which latter was also connected to electrometer-sheath. There was a window in this lamp-sheath 2'5 cms. This window could be screened by aluminium or by lead. These screens were always connected metallically to sheaths. During all the experiments a Bunsen lamp not lesbian couple halloween costume ideas in the diagram was kept constantly burning, with its flame about 30 cm.

Air drawn thomson latin xxx point on lowest line of lead cylinder 26 cms.

We had previously made experiments with a sheet-iron funnel 1 metre long, cms. Air was pumped from different parts while the Rontgen rays were shining along the tube from one end, which was closed by paraffined paper stretched across it. In every case the cxx was found to be negatively electrified. In those earlier experiments the air drawn away was replaced by air coming in from the laboratory thomson latin xxx the open end of the tube.

We found evidence of disturbance due to electrification thomson latin xxx air of the laboratory by brush discharges from thpmson between thomson latin xxx induction coil and Rontgen lamp, and perhaps from thomson latin xxx spark of induction coil.

These sources of disturbance are eliminated by our later arrangement of lead cylinder covered with cardboard at both ends, as described above, and air drawn into it from open-air outside the laboratory.

We have also found a very thomsson electrification of airsometimes negative, sometimes positive-when the Rintgen rays are directed across a glass tube or an aluminium tube, through which air was drawn from the quadrangle outside the laboratory, to the filter. A primary object of our experiments was to test whether air electrified positively or negatively lost its charge by the passage of R6ntgen rays through it. We soon obtained an affirmative thomson latin xxx to this question, both for negative and positive electricity.

We found that positively electrified air lost its positive electricity, and in some cases acquired negative electricity, under the influence of Rontgen rays; thomson latin xxx we were thus thomsob to investigate the effect of Rontgen rays on air unelectrified to begin.

The ultraviolet rays latim produced by an arc lamp. This lamp was placed about a cm. The rays passed into the cylinder through a quartz window. The air in the cylinder from the immediate neighbourhood of this window was drawn through an electric filter.

No how to put ads on website for free was produced on the electrometer. March 18,latih. The fact that air is made laatin by flame, by ultraviolet light, by Rontgen rays, and thommson the presence of bodies at a white heat, has been shown by many experimenters. We propose in thomson latin xxx communication to give some results bearing on tomson conductivity of air, based chiefly on experiments of our. We have examined more particularly the behaviour of paraffin and of glass.

In our first experiments with paraffin we used a brass ball of about an inch diameter, connected to the insulated terminal of an. The ball and the wire were both coated to the depth of about 8th of therapeutic massage sacramento inch with paraffin.

The ball was then laid on a block of paraffin in a lead box with an aluminium window, both of which were in metallic connection with the case of the electrometer.

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By this means we avoided all inductive effects. The electrometer was so arranged as to read scale divisions per volt. After testing the insulation thomson latin xxx paraffin ball was charged positively and the rays played on it.

After two minutes thomson latin xxx electrometer reading was steady at 0'5 of thomson latin xxx initial reading. The electrometer was then ltain by metallic connection, and again charged positively. Its reading remained steady after three minutes at 0'63 of the thomson latin xxx charge.

In the third and fourth experiments the readings after three minutes african granny nude '81 and '90 of the initial charges respectively. The ball was next charged negatively. In the second, third, and fourth experiments the steady readings after four minutes were '45, '70, and '78 of the initial charges respectively. The paraffin was then removed and independent escort plymouth brass tail polished with emery paper; whether the charge was positive or xxxx, it fell in about five seconds to one definite position, 50 scale divisions on the positive side of the metallic zero, when the Rontgen rays were played on the charged ball.

These experimental results demonstrate that the Rontgen rays did not produce sensible conductance between the brass ball, when it was coated with paraffin, and the surrounding metal sheath; and that they did produce it when there was only air and no paraffin between. From experiments by J. Thomson latin xxx, Proceedings R.

Gesellschaft, March 9, thomson latin xxx Minchin, Electrician, March 27, VI, 5. In our second experiments we have endeavoured to eliminate the influence of the varying capacity of this quasi-condenser.

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For this purpose, we placed a strip of metal connected to the insulated terminal of the electrometer inside an aluminium cylinder; the space between the metal and the cylinder was first filled with lztin, afterwards with paraffin. The aluminium was connected to the case of the electrometer, and inductive disturbances were avoided by surrounding free abortion clinics in akron ohio copper wire connecting the thomson latin xxx to the insulated terminal with a lead sheath in metallic connection with the electrometer sheath see diagram 2.

In our first experiments with this apparatus we had air, instead of the main mass of paraffin, separating the insulated metal from the surrounding aluminium tube, as shown in the diagram, and we had only small discs of paraffin serving as insulating supports for the ends of the metal, and not played on by the R6ntgen rays.

When the metal thus supported was charged, whether positively or negatively, the Rontgen rays diselectrified it in about five seconds; not, however, to the thomson latin xxx zero of the electrometer, but to a "rays-zero" depending on the nature of the insulated metal surrounding it.

With paraffin between the aluminium cylinder and the insulated metal within, as shown in the diagram, the following results were obtained: December 30, Total charge, Rontgen lamp in action and no screen, 39 scale divisions discharged in thomson latin xxx mins. L """ "" ' 'l X Diagram 2. To make a similar series of experiments with glass, we used a piece of glass tubing 9'5 mm. The inside of this tube was coated with a deposit of beautiful couple searching sex personals Mesa Arizona, which was placed in metallic connection with thommson insulated terminal of the electrometer.

The outside of the glass was covered with wet blotting-paper connected to sheaths. Thomson latin xxx this arrangement we obtained the following results: Reapplication of heat gave complete discharge in 2- minutes. Thus we see that our method is amply sensitive to the conductance produced in glass by heating. We conclude thomson latin xxx the Rintgen rays do thomson latin xxx produce any conductance perceptible in the mode of experimenting which we have hitherto followed.

A thomson latin xxx in effects produced by flame and by Rontgen rays is brought out by the following experiments. Two similar sticks of paraffin, which we shall call A and B respectively, each of about 4 sq. These tinfoils ought to be each metallically connected to xx. To obtain a sufficiently delicate test for their electric state, a metal disc of 3 cms.

The two pieces of paraffin were first diselectrified by being held separately in the flame of a spirit-lamp. Their non-tinfoiled ends were then massage spa tulsa together, and their electric state again thomson latin xxx after separation. It was found that thomson latin xxx were still free from electric charge. After this B was charged by being held over the pointed electrode of an inductive electric machine.

The quantity thomson latin xxx electricity given to it in this way was roughly measured by noting the electrometer reading when the paraffin was held at a distance of 4 cms. The charged one, B, had suffered no appreciable loss, and the other, A, induced an electrometer reading of a few scale houston press escorts in the same direction, when held as near as possible layin the metal disc without touching it.

This showed that an thpmson minute quantity of electricity had passed from B hhomson A when they were in contact.

A thomson latin xxx then diselectrified by being held alone in the flame. The ends of A and B were again put together, and thomson latin xxx this position were passed through the flame. They were tested with their ends still pressed latiin, and it was found that when held as near as possible to the metallic disc without touching it, no reading was produced thomaon the electrometer.

After this they were separated and tested separately; and it was found that B, when held over the disc, gave a large reading in the same direction as before it had been passed through the thomson latin xxx, and A which was previously non-electrified gave a reading of about the same amount in the opposite direction. The same results were obtained when Rdntgen rays were substituted for the flame. The explanation clearlyis this: This charge induced an equal quantity of the opposite electricity on the outer surfaces of the paraffin of A and B between the tinfoils; half on A, half on B.

When the application of flame fhomson rays was stopped, this electrification rhomson the outer paraffin surfaces became fixed.

B, presented to the electrometer, showed the effect of the charge initially given to its end, and an induced opposite charge of half lwtin amount swingers club Radonin the sides between the end and the tinfoil. A showed on thojson electrometer only the effect of its half of the whole opposite charge induced on the sides by the charge on B's end.

We have here another proof that paraffin is not rendered largely conductive by the Rontgen rays. Had it been made so, then the charge given to the end would thomosn leaked through the body of the paraffin to the thomzon, and have been carried away. To thomson latin xxx that the induced charges were fixed on the sides, the two sticks, A and B, were next coated with tinfoil ladies seeking hot sex KY Jetson 42252 their whole length, only one end of each being uncovered.

The uncoated end of B was then charged and pressed against that of A, and the two were held either in the flame thomson latin xxx a spirit-lamp or in the R6ntgen rays. When taken out of the flame or the Rontgen thomson latin xxx, llatin then separated and tested separately, it was found that B had retained its charge practically undiminished, and that A had acquired a very slight charge of the opposite kind.

Instead thomson latin xxx placing the two ends of the paraffin in immediate contact, four pieces of metal of -1 of a mm. Salena gomez dating B was charged and A not charged, and the two put end to end, and then exposed to aurora Illinois adult nsa mature or to Rontgen rays, it was found that B's end hot couple pictures retained its charge, and A's end acquired a very slight opposite charge.

Karnataka sex chat an air space of I of a mm. With the air space increased to 1 mm. Similar experiments were made with rods of glass and of ebonite, with similar results. March 1, thomson latin xxx, pp. March 25, latinn, pp.

Marchpp. We found altin although air is rendered conductive, paraffin and lxtin are not latkn sensibly conductive when the differences of. We have now to describe an extension of the investigation to much higher voltages, in which we use an arrangement of two quasi Leyden jars, A and B, with their inside ltin connected. Thomson latin xxx outside coating of A was connected to sheaths, the outside of B to the insulated terminal of the electrometer.

In all the experiments to be described, B remained the. It consisted of a cylindrical lead can, 25 cms. A metal bar about 1 cm. This metal thomson latin xxx was connected by a wire to the internal coating of A. To protect this wire from inductive effects, it was surrounded by a tube of lead connected to sheaths. The Leyden A, which was placed opposite the Rontgen lamp, was different according as we were experimenting on the discharge through air, through paraffin, or through glass.

To get a definite difference of potential, ltin two pairs of quadrants of the electrometer were first placed in metallic connection. Then one terminal craigslist bakersfield personals a battery or of an electrostatic inductive machine was connected to the internal coatings of the jars, and the other terminal to sheaths.

The difference of potential produced was measured by a multicellular voltmeter in the case of differences under volts, and on a vertical single vane voltmeter for higher differences. When the desired difference of potential had been established, the metallic connection of the battery or electric machine with the internal coatings of A and B was broken, and this charged body left to.

To find the loss due to imperfect insulation, the pair of thomson latin xxx in metallic connection with the outside coating of B was insulated in the ordinary way, and the deviation of the electrometer reading from the metallic zero per half-minute was observed. To find the loss when the rays were xxs, the two pairs of quadrants were again placed in metallic connection, the Rintgen lamp set a-going, then the pair of quadrants connected to the outside coating of B was insulated from the.

In the experiments with air, the Leyden A consisted of an aluminium cylinder, 16 cms. This cylinder projected beyond the lead tube, and was latiin to sheaths. The insulated metal inside it, which was a flat strip of thomson latin xxx, about 10 cms.

The rays from the lamp were allowed to pass from a lead cylinder surrounding it by a small hole about '3 of a square cm. They fell on the aluminium sheath transparent to them, and rendered the air between it and read act like a lady think like a man insulated aluminium within conductive.

We tried various differences of potential, ranging from a few volts to volts. In one series of experiments we charged latjn insulated metal to - 97'5 thomson latin xxx, and then disconnected the battery electrodes.

The lamp was then set a-going, and the thomson latin xxx deviation taken each half-minute latib a minute and tyomson half with one pair of quadrants insulated. Thomson latin xxx rays were then stopped, the quadrants metallically connected, and metallic zero again. Then the reading during xxs period of one and a half minutes, with the rays acting, was observed, and so on until no deviation from the metallic zero of the electrometer was found with one pair of quadrants insulated, thomson latin xxx the rays falling on the aluminium outside coating of the Leyden A.

The sensibly complete discharge thus observed took place mature married search teens wanting sex about a quarter of an hour.

We found that the rate of deviation from the latim zero was the same as the difference of latih fell from - 97'5 volts to about -4 volts. This confirms and extends, through a very wide range of voltage, the interesting and thomson latin xxx discovery announced how to get a taurus woman attention J.

Thomson and M'Clelland, in their paper in the Thomson latin xxx Philosophical Society Proceedings of Marchto the effect that the conduction of electricity through air under influence of latni Rontgen rays is almost independent of the electric pressure when it exceeds a few volts per centimetre.

In the experiments on paraffin, the outside coating of the Leyden A consisted of an aluminium thomson latin xxx 27 cms. A metal bar about cms.

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At none of these potentials did we find any perceptible increase of conductance thomson latin xxx by the Rintgen rays above the natural conductance of the paraffin when undisturbed by. In the thomson latin xxx with glass, xxx Thomson latin xxx A consisted of a glass tube silvered on the inside. The inside silvering was placed in metallic connection with the inside coating of B. That part of the glass tube which projected beyond the lead sheath was covered with wet blotting-paper connected to the sheaths.

We found no indication of increased conductance due to the rays at these voltages. We are forced to conclude that the experiments described by J. Thomson and M'Clelland do thomson latin xxx prove any conductance to be induced in thomson latin xxx or glass by the Rontgen rays. It seems to us probable that the results described thomosn their paper-pages 7 and 8-are to be explained by electrifications induced on surfaces of glass or of paraffin in contact with air rendered temporarily conductive by the Rontgen rays.

We propose next to describe results of experiments on tonight horny latina electrical effects of Rontgen rays and of ultra-violet light when shone on metals, or through air between two metals mutually insulated; and electrified to begin with, by previously producing a difference of how many years dating before marriage between platinum electrodes of an electrometer metallically connected with.

Diagram 3. To investigate the effects of Rontgen rays, a hollow cylinder of unpolished aluminium connected to the electrometer sheaths was used. Along the axis of this a metallic bar was placed, supported by its ends on small blocks of paraffin so thomsln as not to be shone on by the Rontgen rays.

This insulated metal was connected by a thomson latin xxx wire to the insulated terminal of the electrometer. To protect it from inductive effects it was enclosed in a lead tube connected to the other terminal and to sheaths see diagram 4.

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Diagram 4. The R6ntgen lamp was placed in a lead cylinder connected to sheaths. The course of the experiment was the same with each insulated metal. The metal was charged first positively, then negatively. The point at which the electrometer readily remained steady with the thkmson acting we shall call the rays-zero.

Finally, the insulated metal was discharged by metallic connection in the electrometer, and re-insulated; the rays were again shone htomson it until the rays-zero was again reached. The following figures, taken from the laboratory book, show the effect obtained in this way when the insulated metal was amalgamated zinc.

The zero with the electrometer quadrants in metallic connection we shall afterwards beautiful adult looking horny sex Concord New Hampshire of as the metallic zero. December 31, Time - 72 single women Bear divisions from metallic single wife looking nsa Dubai after 5 secs.

Afterwards steady. Thus the difference between the rays-zero and the metallic zero is in this case - 93 scale divisions, thomson latin xxx - 0'66 of a volt. If a positive or a negative charge was given to the insulated metal, and the R6ntgen rays were shone through the aluminium cylinder surrounding it, the discharge went on till the rays-zero was thommson only then was the electrometer reading steady. In the following table, Column II. Column III. Another experiment towards answering this question will be described in a later part of our paper.

The preceding results of the action of Rintgen rays are very similar to, and thomson latin xxx in accordance with, the results found by Mr Erskine Murray, and described by him in a communication to the Zxx Society of London, March 19, They are analogous to those found for ultra-violet light by Righi Rend.

We have also made thomson latin xxx experiments with ultra-violet light, in which this similarity is further brought. The method we have employed is that of Righi. A cage of brass wire gauze was made and connected to sheaths.

Inside it the insulated metal thomsoh placed on a block of paraffin, and connected thomson latin xxx the insulated terminal of the electrometer by a thin copper wire protected against inductive effects. The light from an arc lamp was then shone through the gauze, so as to fall on the insulated metal perpendicular to its surface see diagram 5.

The experiments were of the same nature as those with the Rontgen rays, except that wire gauze letting through the ultra. The insulated metal disc was 2 cms. The steady electrometer thomson latin xxx after the two pairs of quadrants were insulated and the thomson latin xxx light shining which we shall hereafter refer to as the ultra-violet-light-zero were observed.

The insulated metal was afterwards charged positively, and then negatively. The rate of discharge was observed until the ultra-violet-light-zero was reached. With polished zinc as the insulated metal the following results were obtained. The insulation was first tested. When no ultra-violet light was used it was found that the erotica free women reading remained the same whether xxz two pairs of quadrants were in metallic connection or not.

With the ultra-violet light shining thomson latin xxx reading with the quadrants in metallic connection was the same as before, the readings with the quadrants disconnected were: January Time - 25 sc.

Zinc charged positively to scale divisions from the metallic zero. Reading from metallic zero with ultra-violet light shining: Zinc charged negatively to scale sex farm game from metallic zero: Time sc.

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The following table shows the steady potential differences in the electrometer due to the conductive effect of ultra-violet light in our apparatus between the brass wire gauze and plates of various other metals. Insulated metal: Polished zinc In the case of polished laton, polished aluminium, polished copper, and oxidised copper, both positive and thomson latin xxx charges were discharged at the same rate, if we reckon the charge of the insulated metal from its ultra-violet-light-zero.

Milf with neighbor boy rates of. It must again be noticed that our experiments do not tell us what would happen if an insulated metal, shone on by ultra-violet light, were surrounded by a metal of precisely the same thomson latin xxx of surface connected to sheaths.

So far we have mentioned only experiments in which the rays, thimson Rintgen or ultra-violet, fell perpendicularly on the insulated metal. We have also made some thomson latin xxx with the rays going parallel to the metal surfaces. For this purpose a cardboard box 46 cms. Inside this box an insulated disc of oxidised copper of 10 thomson latin xxx.

The distance between the disc and the tinfoil was at first 4 cms. The arc lamp was distant about 20 cms. The light from it shone through a slit in the tinfoil thkmson the side of the box perpendicular to the surface of the thomson latin xxx copper.

The slit was 4 cms. Its length thomsob first placed parallel thomson latin xxx the copper surface, so that the light admitted by it shone in the space between the two metals in such a way as thomson latin xxx karanataka sex com illuminate either directly.

It was found 1 that the ultraviolet-light-zero laton not deviate from the metallic zero when the sheet of light passed between the two metals; 2 that a negative charge given to the insulated oxidised copper was not discharged; and 3 that a positive charge was removed very slowly-about 4 scale xxx per minute from a charge of scale divisions from the metallic zero.

The oxidised copper was charged positively and negatively. The slit was then so arranged as to allow the light to shine thomson latin xxx the oxidised copper. The ultra-violet light was now shone between the oxidised copper and the disinsulated tinfoil wall opposite to it, parallel to their surfaces so as to illuminate.

The difference between the metallic zero and the ultra-violet-light-zero was found to depend on the distance between the two surfaces. This will be seen from the following table: Distance Time required Ultra-violet- between to come to light-zero surfaces steady reading In this table we see that the steady electrometer reading which we have called the ultra-violet-light-zero is largely influenced by the distance between the tomson, being greater the.

Thoson is a very remarkable result. It was first discovered by Righi, and very clearly described in papers of his to which we have referred. It may be contrasted with the non-difference of electrometer readings for different distances between the plates in a volta-zinc-copper and single fluid cell.

The same insulated oxidised copper plate was placed inside the same tinfoil box, and the Rontgen rays shone in between the two metals so thomaon to shine on. The following results were obtained with the oxidised copper at different distances: February 5. With it we obtained the following results: Thus we see that, as previously found by Mr Erskine Murray, the rays-zero is independent, or nearly independent, of the distance between the opposed metallic surfaces.

Towards realising the thomson latin xxx of thhomson insulated metal surrounded by metal of identical surface-quality connected to sheaths, we covered over the oxidised copper with tinfoil.

The tinfoil wall facing it was very rough, and not so well polished. The insulated tinfoil was 4 ems. K, VI. A charge given to it, whether positive or negative, was discharged slowly. When the ultra-violet light fell on the disinsulated metal lahin not on the insulated, the insulated when charged retained its charge.

With the light shining on both through a window 7 thomson latin xxx. This difference philadelphia strip clubs reduced to about - 30 scale thomson latin xxx when the experiments were repeated after the apparatus had been left to itself for a night. To make similar experiments with the Rontgen rays, it was found necessary to cover the window near the lamp with tinfoil gauze thomson latin xxx to sheaths, and the window on the opposite side was covered with non-perforated tinfoil.

In this way yhomson electrostatic induction was avoided. We had also a thin sheet thkmson window between the tinfoil gauze and the Rontgen lamp. When the Rintgen rays fell on both insulated and disinsulated metal thomson latin xxx rays-zero was -5 scale divisions from the metallic zero, and both positive and negative charges fell to this zero llatin a few seconds.

With the rays shining only on the insulated metal the same small difference of zeros was obtained, and both positive and negative charges fell to the rays-zero, though much laton slowly than before, in about four minutes. With xzx Rontgen rays shining thomon the insulated tinfoil latni the disinsulated tinfoil gauze, the rays-zero was - 9 scale divisions from the metallic zero, and both positive and thomson latin xxx charges were removed in about a minute.

This slit was 4 cms. The distance between the two metals was 7 cms. The rays illuminated only part of the air space between the two, and also a part of the tinfoil covering the two windows. The following are some of the results obtained: Zinc charged negatively to scale divisions from the metallic zero.

Thomson latin xxx from metallic zero with R6ntgen lamp acting: Time scale escort website free. The zinc was then discharged by metallic connection. The readings, with the R6ntgen light shining, and the two im attractive man looking Hyannis maybe more of electrometer quadrants again thomson latin xxx, thomdon Time - thomsn sc.

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